Making of a Panoramic

To make a panorama, you take several shots that capture overlapping sections of the scene. Then you use imaging software to seamlessly stitch the sections together. You can take the shots in the vertical or horizontal positions. I do prefer the vertical shots for my panoramic shots.

A tripod with a built-in bubble level is essential. Next, a ball head that you can smoothly and accurately turn your camera to capture the sections of the scene.The first step is to level the tripod. Make sure to move the camera through the entire spectrum of the shot. Many DSLRs offer a feature called Virtual Horizon that will guide you to your level best. If yours doesn't have that feature, you can get a bubble level, which slides into the camera's hot shoe. Once you are confident with the levelness of the camera, set the camera settings. 

I believe manual settings are best for the panoramic images. If not The automatic settings will change focus, white balance and exposure. he settings for this pano was F/2.8, ISO 6400, White balance was 3900, 20 sec exposure. This will give different shades and hues within the image. Making the image much more difficult to process. Typically on a daytime shot each shot should overlap 30% to 40%. This gives the software enough data to lay the images together. I was taught to overlap night shots by at least 60% to give more information to the program. Even with that I have had a couple fail. I have been trying to go 70% overlap on each individual image. This has worked better for me in giving more data for the software to match. By overlapping so much I also end up stacking several images for noise reduction. This image has 21 single shot images stitched together for a 16" x 48" panoramic image.